Brainil

BRAINIL combines carnitine (in the form of L-acetylcarnitine) and a titrated – standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (leaves) complexed with soy phosphatidylcholine (Ginkgoselect® Plus Fitosoma®). The Ginkgo biloba extract is useful to promote microcirculation and the memory and cognitive functions.

Dose

  • 1 or 2 tablets per day

Packaging

  • 30 divisible coated tablets
Functional Ingredient For 1 tablet For 2 tablets
L-Acetilcarnitina HCl (LAC) 590 mg 1180 mg
equal to L-acetylcarnitine 500 mg 1000 mg
equal to L-carnitine 396,5 mg 793 mg
Ginkgo Biloba 80 mg 160 mg
Vitamin B12 16,5 mg 33 mg

The Expert says

to learn more

Pasquale Romano, Export Manager for Spain, Portugal & Americas
Chiara Demi, Europe & Asia
Alessandra Oluwole, Africa & Middle East

Cognitive decline in aging and MCI

Aging is defined as the natural progressive decline in the probability of survival that all individuals suffer with as they age. In Europe, the elderly population is expected to reach 198 million individuals in 2025, i.e. it will be 78.5% larger than in 1975.

It is ascertained that, with the exception of a very few lucky people, everyone must face a progressive loss of mental agility with advancing age, in particular the highest mental functions are afflicted, such as memory, learning ability, language, concentration , which are collectively referred to as cognitive functions. Scientific tests show that adult subjects, despite good general health, from middle age to senility can lose up to half of their cognitive abilities.

Given that there is an increase in the elderly population, there is consequently an increase in the number of people who experience the decline in cognitive functions attributable to the physiological weakening of brain activity, due to aging, or who manifest the so-called cognitive decline mild (MCI – Mild Cognitive Impairment) or who exhibit forms of dementia, such as Alzheimer’s disease. To confirm this, it emerges that over 6% of the over-sixties, 15% of the over-seventy-five years and 30% of those over the age of 85 show a decline in cognitive functions, which can lead to a progressive loss of autonomy with heavy repercussions on the personal production capacity and self-esteem.

Mild cognitive decline consists in a reduction of mental efficiency more serious than cognitive decline linked to aging, but not definable as senile dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. Mild cognitive decline is usually characterized by the following aspects: cognitive impairment objectively measurable by neuropsychological examination; testimonials from family members or from the person himself relating to cognitive difficulties; preservation of skills in daily life activities; preservation or slight alteration of skills in the use of tools. Depending on whether memory loss occurs, there are two subtypes of mild cognitive decline: amnesic and non-amnesic. Mild cognitive decline may or may not be the prodrome of frank dementia.

For subjects suffering from mild cognitive decline, early diagnosis has considerable advantages, as it allows the immediate establishment of measures to plan an appropriate management of the disease thanks to the enhancement of residual capacities and the preparation of the family, but also the institution of a therapy that aims to delay the progression of the disease.

Modern hypotheses formulated to explain the progressive weakening of cognitive functions with aging place oxidative stress, inflammation related to it, alterations of blood circulation in the brain (the so-called cerebrovascular aging) at the center of attention. progressive alteration of neuron functions. Therefore, the therapeutic solutions proposed to slow down the aging of the central nervous system and preserve its cognitive functions in the elderly are suitable for the protection from oxidative stress, the control of inflammatory processes and the improvement of cerebral blood circulation.

Cognitive decline

At different times in life, for different causes it is possible to face a progressive loss of mental agility, which affects the highest mental functions, such as memory, learning ability, language, concentration, which are collectively defined cognitive functions. Scientific tests show that adult subjects, despite good general health, from middle age to senility can lose up to half of their cognitive abilities. Completely similar conditions can affect relatively young subjects, especially because of repeated or protracted stress conditions over time.

Relatively young subjects who under stress conditions face a transient decline in cognitive functions can recover them thanks to a renewed balance of their daily activities, in the management of affects etc. Additional help may come from the B complex vitamins, the need for which increases in stressful conditions, and from the substances defined as adaptogens, which improve the body’s response to events that the body interprets as stressful.

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) consists in a reduction of mental efficiency more serious than cognitive decline linked to aging, but not definable as senile dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. Mild cognitive decline is usually characterized by the following aspects: cognitive impairment objectively measurable by neuropsychological examination; testimonials from family members or from the person himself relating to cognitive difficulties; preservation of skills in daily life activities; preservation or slight alteration of skills in the use of tools. Depending on whether memory loss occurs, there are two subtypes of mild cognitive decline: amnesic and non-amnesic. Mild cognitive decline may or may not be the prodrome of frank dementia.

For subjects suffering from mild cognitive decline, early diagnosis has considerable advantages, as it allows the immediate establishment of measures to plan an appropriate management of the disease thanks to the enhancement of residual capacities and the preparation of the family, but also the institution of a therapy that aims to delay the progression of the disease.

Modern hypotheses formulated to explain the progressive weakening of cognitive functions with aging put oxidative stress, inflammation related to it, alterations of blood circulation in the brain (the so-called cerebrovascular aging) at the center of attention. progressive alteration of neuron functions. Therefore, the therapeutic solutions proposed to slow down the aging of the central nervous system and preserve its cognitive functions in the elderly are suitable for the protection from oxidative stress, the control of inflammatory processes and the improvement of cerebral blood circulation.

Peripheral neuropathies

By peripheral neuropathy is meant the dysfunction of one or more peripheral nerves. Peripheral neuropathies are pathological conditions characterized by changes in sensitivity, pain, muscle weakness, decrease in osteotendinous reflexes and other signs and symptoms. The common denominator of the most frequent peripheral neuropathies is represented by the structural or functional alterations of the nerves following the alteration of the metabolism of neurons and accessory cells or autoimmune reactions.

Among the most common peripheral neuropathies there is diabetic neuropathy which is defined as the presence of symptoms and signs of peripheral nerve dysfunction in patients with diabetes after excluding other causes. The clinical pictures that accompany diabetic neuropathy are manifold and among the most common there are those that are characterized by disorders that are mainly or exclusively sensory in the lower limbs, starting with the toes. The causes have not yet been fully clarified, but the main culprits are believed to be hyperglycemia and insulin deficiency. In fact, blood glucose control reduces the risk of developing diabetic neuropathy by more than 60% over 5 years. The involvement of the peripheral nerves does not occur only in type 1 diabetes, but also in type 2 diabetes, albeit in a generally less serious way.

Another frequent neuropathy is alcoholic neuropathy. The involvement of the peripheral nervous system is one of the most frequent consequences of chronic alcoholism and is evident in 10-15% of alcoholics. The clinical picture is characterized by paresthesia and hyperesthesia mainly in the lower limbs. Paraesthesias are conditions characterized by an altered perception of sensitivity to different sensory stimuli, or by the onset of a sensation of tingling, tingling, tickling, itching, pinpricks, etc. in the absence of specific stimulation. Hyperaesthesias are conditions characterized by an excessive increase in sensitivity to tactile, thermic and painful stimuli which can be painful. Alcoholic neuropathy is the expression of nutritional deficits, especially of the B complex vitamins. It is also hypothesized that this neuropathy can also be aggravated by a direct effect of alcohol on the nerve tissues.

Vitamin B12 deficiency neuropathy is widespread among the elderly. A significant deficiency of vitamin B12 can occur in case of pathological conditions that affect its absorption at the gastric level (pernicious anemia, atrophic gastritis, protracted intake over time of metformin and antacid drugs) or intestinal (disease) Crohn’s, enterectomy).

Even strict vegetarian or vegan dietary regimes can cause a deficiency. Patients show signs of motor and sensory neuropathy in the upper and lower limbs. Vitamin B12 deficiency causes neuropathy that is associated with a spinal cord degeneration.

The therapeutic approach to peripheral neuropathies primarily involves the treatment of primary pathology (for example diabetes or alcoholism) and, in parallel, the management of associated symptoms, mainly pain and alteration of sensitivity.

The treatment of primary pathology is indispensable because if it is possible to remove the cause of damage to the nervous level, nerve regeneration is consequently possible, which is facilitated by the use of the B complex vitamins, involved in all basic cellular biochemical processes and substances with a neurotrophic effect. In fact, integration with group B vitamin compounds represents a therapeutic approach valid not only for neuropathies linked to the deficiency of these vitamins, but also in case of non-deficient neuropathies thanks to their proven therapeutic actions.

Vertigo syndrome

Dizziness is often used to describe various sensations, among which the most recurrent are the feeling of lack of balance or instability and the sensation of rotation. Dizziness or vertigo is an erroneous perception of the movement of a person’s own selfor the surrounding environment. Generally, a rotating movement is perceived, but in some cases the subjects have the feeling of being “pulled to one side”. Vertigo does not represent a diagnosis but is simply the description of a sensation that can also be accompanied by nausea and vomiting.

However, described, dizziness or vertigo can be bothersome and even disabling, especially if accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The problems caused by these symptoms become even more important for those who carry out particular jobs, such as driving vehicles or operating machinery.

The disorder can appear at any age, but becomes more frequent with aging, affecting up to about 40% of people over 40. Dizziness or vertigo can be transient or chronic. A chronic disorder, defined based on a duration of more than a month, is more common among older people, who, due to aging, have less functional organs involved in balance. Older people are also more likely to have cardiac or cerebrovascular conditions that can contribute to dizziness. They are also more likely to take drugs that can cause dizziness, such as those for the treatment of hypertension, anxiety, as well as certain antibiotics and drugs to promote sleep. Therefore, dizziness in elderly patients usually has more than one cause. Although unpleasant at any age, the consequences of dizziness and dizziness are particularly problematic in the elderly. Fragile patients are at significant risk of falls resulting in fractures; their fear of moving and falling often significantly reduces their ability to perform normal daily activities.

The vestibular system is the main neurological system involved in balance and includes the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear, the eighth cranial nerve, which carries signals from the vestibular apparatus to the central components of the nervous system, and the vestibular nuclei in the brain stem and in the cerebellum. These are the systems most frequently involved in the manifestation of vertigo.

Depending on the cause of dizziness, different therapeutic strategies are used, sometimes based on taking appropriate drugs. Patients with persistent or recurrent dizziness secondary to vestibular deficiency often benefit from vestibular rehabilitation therapy practiced by an expert physiotherapist. Thanks to this practice, most patients achieve good results, although some, especially the elderly, show more difficulty in obtaining improvements. In addition to treating specific causes, elderly patients with dizziness or dizziness can benefit from physiotherapy and exercises to strengthen muscles and help maintain independent walking for as long as possible. Alongside these therapeutic solutions, substances, including those of a food nature, which protect the walls of blood vessels, improve blood circulation and have an antioxidant action may also be relevant. Substances of this type nourish and protect the delicate structures of the vestibular apparatus from free radicals.

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by the crushing of the median nerve, which runs along the arm and innervates the hand. This crushing can be caused by swelling of the tissue that is located outside or inside the tunnel, or it can be caused by the bundles of fibrous tissue that form the side of the wrist facing the palm of the hand.

Women during pregnancy and individuals suffering from diabetes, hypothyroidism, some forms of amyloidosis or rheumatoid arthritis present an increased risk of manifesting carpal tunnel syndrome. Individuals who work by performing repeated, forced movements with an extended wrist, such as when using a screwdriver, are also exposed to an increased risk of manifesting carpal tunnel syndrome. Another potential factor that is often talked about is the use of the incorrectly positioned computer keyboard. The prolonged exposure to vibrations, connected to the use of certain equipment, has also been linked to the trigger of the carpal tunnel syndrome. However, most cases occur for unknown reasons.

Carpal tunnel syndrome is characterized by changes in sensitivity, numbness, tingling and pain in the first three fingers of the hand and in the middle of the fourth finger. Sometimes the whole hand can be involved. Pain and a burning or tingling sensation can also occur in the forearm. Burning with numbness and tingling can worsen sleep quality, causing frequent awakenings during the night. Over time, the muscles of the hand on the side of the thumb tend to weaken and atrophy due to non-use.

The therapeutic strategy is based on paying attention to the positions and movements, avoiding the positions that stretch the wrist excessively or that cause excessive pressure on the median nerve. It may be useful to wear a rigid wrist support, the so-called brace, to keep the hand in a neutral position especially during sleep. Sometimes it is suggested to take light painkillers or drugs or food supplements that can favor the reduction of symptoms and the trophic effect on the crushed nerve. A reduction in symptoms is also obtained thanks to the treatment of any underlying pathologies, such as rheumatoid arthritis or hypothyroidism. If the pain becomes intense or if the muscles are atrophied or tend to atrophy, surgery is recommended to eliminate the crushing of the median nerve.